Article 27.


1-268. Writs of error abolished.

Writs of error in civil actions are abolished, and the only mode of reviewing a judgment, or order, in a civil action, is that prescribed by this Chapter. (C.C.P., s. 296; Code, s. 544; Rev., s. 583; C.S., s. 629.)


1-269. Certiorari, recordari, and supersedeas.

Writs of certiorari, recordari, and supersedeas are authorized as heretofore in use. The writs of certiorari and recordari, when used as substitutes for an appeal, may issue when ordered upon the applicant filing a written undertaking for the costs only; but the supersedeas, to suspend execution, shall not issue until an undertaking is filed or a deposit made to secure the judgment sought to be vacated, as in cases of appeal where execution is stayed. (1874-5, c. 109; Code, s. 545; Rev., s. 584; C.S., s. 630.)


1-270. Appeal to appellate division; security on appeal; stay.

Cases shall be taken to the appellate division by appeal, as provided by law. All provisions in this Article as to the security to be given upon appeals and as to the stay of proceedings apply to appeals taken to the appellate division. (C.C.P., s. 312; Code, ss. 561, 946; Rev., ss. 595, 1540; C.S., s. 631; 1969, c. 444, s. 3.)


1-271. Who may appeal.

Any party aggrieved may appeal in the cases prescribed in this Chapter. A party who cross assigns error in the grant or denial of a motion under the Rules of Civil Procedure is a party aggrieved. (C.C.P., s. 298; Code, s. 547; Rev., s. 585; C.S., s. 632; 1969, c. 895, s. 15.)


1-272 through 1-276: Repealed by Session Laws 1999-216, s. 2.


1-277. Appeal from superior or district court judge.

(a) An appeal may be taken from every judicial order or determination of a judge of a superior or district court, upon or involving a matter of law or legal inference, whether made in or out of session, which affects a substantial right claimed in any action or proceeding; or which in effect determines the action, and prevents a judgment from which an appeal might be taken; or discontinues the action, or grants or refuses a new trial.

(b) Any interested party shall have the right of immediate appeal from an adverse ruling as to the jurisdiction of the court over the person or property of the defendant or such party may preserve his exception for determination upon any subsequent appeal in the cause. (1818, c. 962, s. 4, P.R.; C.C.P., s. 299; Code, s. 548; Rev., s. 587; C.S., s. 638; 1967, c. 954, s. 3; 1971, c. 268, s. 10.)


1-278. Interlocutory orders reviewed on appeal from judgment.

Upon an appeal from a judgment, the court may review any intermediate order involving the merits and necessarily affecting the judgment. (C.C.P., s. 313; Code, s. 562; Rev., s. 589; C.S., s. 640.)


1-279. Repealed by Session Laws 1989, c.377, s. 1.


1-279.1. Manner and time for giving notice of appeal to appellate division in civil actions and in special proceedings.

Any party entitled by law to appeal from a judgment or order rendered by a judge in superior or district court in a civil action or in a special proceeding may take appeal by giving notice of appeal within the time, in the manner, and with the effect provided in the rules of appellate procedure. (1989, c. 377, s. 2.)


1-280. Repealed by Session Laws 1975, c. 391, s. 4.


1-281. Appeals from judgments not in session.

When appeals are taken from judgments of the clerk or judge not made in session, the clerk is authorized to make any and all necessary orders for the perfecting of such appeals. (Ex. Sess. 1921, c. 92, s. 19a; C.S., s. 642(a); 1971, c. 381, s. 12.)


1-282. Repealed by Session Laws 1975, c. 391, s. 7.


1-283. Trial judge empowered to settle record on appeal; effect of leaving office or of disability.

Except as provided in this section, only the judge of superior court or of district court from whose order or judgment an appeal has been taken is empowered to settle the record on appeal when judicial settlement is required. A judge retains power to settle a record on appeal notwithstanding he has resigned or retired or his term of office has expired without reappointment or reelection since entry of the judgment or order. Proceedings for judicial settlement when the judge empowered by this section to settle the record on appeal is unavailable for the purpose by reason of death, mental or physical incapacity, or absence from the State shall be as provided by the rules of appellate procedure. (C.C.P., s. 301; Code, s. 550; 1889, c. 161; Rev., s. 591; 1907, c. 312; C.S., s. 644; 1971, c. 381, s. 12; 1975, c. 391, s. 8.)


1-284. Repealed by Session Laws 1975, c. 391, s. 9.


1-285. Undertaking on appeal.

(a) To render an appeal effectual for any purpose in a civil cause or special proceeding, a written undertaking must be executed on the part of the appellant, with good and sufficient surety, in the sum of two hundred fifty dollars ($250.00), or any lesser sum as might be adjudged by the court, to the effect that the appellant will pay all costs awarded against him on the appeal, and this undertaking must be filed with the clerk with whom the judgment or order was filed; or such sum must be deposited with the appropriate clerk of the appellate division in compliance with the North Carolina Rules of Appellate Procedure.

(b) The provisions of this section do not apply to the State of North Carolina, a city or a county or a local board of education, an officer thereof in his official capacity, or an agency thereof. (C.C.P., ss. 303, 312; 1871-2, c. 31; Code, ss. 552, 561; 1889, c. 135, s. 2; Rev., ss. 593, 595; C.S., s. 646; 1969, c. 44, s. 5; 1975, c. 391, s. 1; 1985, c. 468; 1987, c. 462, s. 2; 1995 (Reg. Sess., 1996), c. 742, s. 42.3.)


1-286. Justification of sureties.

The written undertaking on appeal must be accompanied by the affidavit of one of the sureties that he is worth double the amount specified therein. The respondent may except to the sufficiency of the sureties within ten days after the notice of appeal; and unless they or other sureties justify within the ten days thereafter, the appeal shall be regarded as if no undertaking had been given. The justification must be upon a notice of not less than five days. (C.C.P., s. 310; Code, s. 560; 1887, c. 121; Rev., s. 594; C.S., s. 647; 1995 (Reg. Sess., 1996), c. 742, s. 42.4.)


1-287. Repealed by Session Laws 1975, c. 391, s. 2.


1-287.1. Repealed by Session Laws 1975, c. 391, s. 10.


1-288. Appeals by indigents; clerk's fees.

When any party to a civil action tried and determined in the superior or district court at the time of trial or special proceeding desires an appeal from the judgment rendered in the action to the Appellate Division, and is unable, by reason of poverty, to make the deposit or to give the security required by law for the appeal, it shall be the duty of the judge or clerk of said court to make an order allowing the party to appeal from the judgment to the Appellate Division as in other cases of appeal, without giving security therefor. The party desiring to appeal from the judgment or order in a civil action or special proceeding shall, within 30 days after the entry of the judgment or order, make affidavit that he or she is unable by reason of poverty to give the security required by law. Nothing contained in this section deprives the clerk of the superior court of the right to demand the fees for the certificate and seal as now allowed by law in such cases. Provided, that where the judge or the clerk has made an order allowing the appellant to appeal as an indigent and the appeal has been filed in the Appellate Division, and an error or omission has been made in the affidavit or certificate of counsel, and the error is called to the attention of the court before the hearing of the argument of the case, the court shall permit an amended affidavit or certificate to be filed correcting the error or omission. (1873-4, c. 60; Code, s. 553; 1889, c. 161; Rev., s. 597; 1907, c. 878; C.S., s. 649; 1937, c. 89; 1951, c. 837, s. 7; 1969, c. 44, s. 8; 1971, c. 268, s. 12; 1991, c. 563, s. 1; 1993, c. 435, s. 3; 1995, c. 536, s. 1.)


1-289. Undertaking to stay execution on money judgment.

(a) If the appeal is from a judgment directing the payment of money, it does not stay the execution of the judgment unless a written undertaking is executed on the part of the appellant, by one or more sureties, as set forth in this section.

(a1) In an action where the judgment directs the payment of money, the court shall specify the amount of the undertaking required to stay execution of the judgment pending appeal as provided in subsection (a2) of this section. The undertaking shall be to the effect that if the judgment appealed from, or any part thereof, is affirmed, or the appeal is dismissed, the appellant will pay the amount directed to be paid by the judgment, or the part of such amount as to which the judgment shall be affirmed, if affirmed only in part, and all damages which shall be awarded against the appellant upon the appeal, except as provided in subsection (b) of this section. Whenever it is satisfactorily made to appear to the court that since the execution of the undertaking the sureties have become insolvent, the court may, by rule or order, require the appellant to execute, file and serve a new undertaking, as above. In case of neglect to execute such undertaking within twenty days after the service of a copy of the rule or order requiring it, the appeal may, on motion to the court, be dismissed with costs. Whenever it is necessary for a party to an action or proceeding to give a bond or an undertaking with surety or sureties, he may, in lieu thereof, deposit with the officer into court money to the amount of the bond or undertaking to be given. The court in which the action or proceeding is pending may direct what disposition shall be made of such money pending the action or proceeding. In a case where, by this section, the money is to be deposited with an officer, a judge of the court, upon the application of either party, may, at any time before the deposit is made, order the money deposited in court instead of with the officer; and a deposit made pursuant to such order is of the same effect as if made with the officer. The perfecting of an appeal by giving the undertaking mentioned in this section stays proceedings in the court below upon the judgment appealed from; except when the sale of perishable property is directed, the court below may order the property to be sold and the proceeds thereof to be deposited or invested, to abide the judgment of the appellate court.

(a2) The amount of the undertaking that shall be required by the court shall be an amount determined by the court after notice and hearing proper and reasonable for the security of the rights of the adverse party, considering relevant factors, including the following:

(1) The amount of the judgment.

(2) The amount of the limits of all applicable liability policies of the appellant judgment debtor.

(3) The aggregate net worth of the appellant judgment debtor.

(b) If the appellee in a civil action brought under any legal theory obtains a judgment directing the payment or expenditure of money in the amount of twenty five million dollars ($25,000,000) or more, and the appellant seeks a stay of execution of the judgment within the period of time during which the appellant has the right to pursue appellate review, including discretionary review and certiorari, the amount of the undertaking that the appellant is required to execute to stay execution of the judgment during the entire period of the appeal shall be twenty five million dollars ($25,000,000).

(c) If the appellee proves by a preponderance of the evidence that the appellant for whom the undertaking has been limited under subsection (b) of this section is, for the purpose of evading the judgment, (i) dissipating its assets, (ii) secreting its assets, or (iii) diverting its assets outside the jurisdiction of the courts of North Carolina or the federal courts of the United States other than in the ordinary course of business, then the limitation in subsection (b) of this section shall not apply and the appellant shall be required to make an undertaking in the full amount otherwise required by this section. (C.C.P., ss. 304, 311; Code, s. 554; Rev., s. 598; C.S., s. 650; 2000, Ex. Sess., c. 1, s. 2; 2003-19, s. 3; 2011-400, s. 1.)


1-290. How judgment for personal property stayed.

If the judgment appealed from directs the assignment or delivery of documents or personal property, the execution of the judgment is not stayed by appeal, unless the things required to be assigned or delivered are brought into court, or placed in the custody of such officer or receiver as the court appoints, or unless an undertaking be entered into on the part of the appellant, by at least two sureties, and in such amount as the court or a judge thereof directs, to the effect that the appellant will obey the order of the appellate court upon the appeal. (C.C.P., s. 305; Code, s. 555; Rev., s. 599; C.S., s. 651.)


1-291. How judgment directing conveyance stayed.

If the judgment appealed from directs the execution of a conveyance or other instrument, the execution of the judgment is not stayed by the appeal until the instrument has been executed and deposited with the clerk with whom the judgment is entered, to abide the judgment of the appellate court. (C.C.P., s. 306; Code, s. 556; Rev., s. 600; C.S., s. 652.)


1-292. How judgment for real property stayed.

If the judgment appealed from directs the sale or delivery of possession of real property, the execution is not stayed, unless a bond is executed on the part of the appellant, with one or more sureties, to the effect that, during his possession of such property, he will not commit, or suffer to be committed, any waste thereon, and that if the judgment is affirmed he will pay the value of the use and occupation of the property, from the time of the appeal until the delivery of possession thereof pursuant to the judgment, not exceeding a sum to be fixed by a judge of the court by which judgment was rendered and which must be specified in the undertaking. When the judgment is for the sale of mortgaged premises, and the payment of a deficiency arising upon the sale, the undertaking must also provide for the payment of this deficiency. (C.C.P., s. 307; Code, s. 557; Rev., s. 601; C.S., s. 653.)


1-293. Docket entry of stay.

When an appeal from a judgment is pending, and the undertaking requisite to stay execution on the judgment has been given, and the appeal perfected, the court in which the judgment was recovered may, on special motion, after notice to the person owning the judgment, on such terms as it sees fit, direct an entry to be made by the clerk on the docket of such judgment, that the same is secured on appeal, and no execution can issue upon such judgment during the pendency of the appeal. (C.C.P., s. 254; Code, s. 435; 1887, c. 192; Rev., s. 621; C.S., s. 654.)


1-294. Scope of stay; security limited for fiduciaries.

When an appeal is perfected as provided by this Article it stays all further proceedings in the court below upon the judgment appealed from, or upon the matter embraced therein, unless otherwise provided by the Rules of Appellate Procedure; but the court below may proceed upon any other matter included in the action and not affected by the judgment appealed from. The court below may, in its discretion, dispense with or limit the security required, when the appellant is an executor, administrator, trustee, or other person acting in a fiduciary capacity. It may also limit such security to an amount not more than fifty thousand dollars ($50,000), where it would otherwise exceed that sum. (C.C.P., s. 308; Code, s. 558; Rev., s. 602; C.S., s. 655; 2015-25, s. 2.)


1-295. Undertaking in one or more instruments; served on appellee.

The undertakings may be in one instrument or several, at the option of the appellant; and a copy, including the names and residences of the sureties, must be served on the adverse party, with the notice of appeal, unless the required deposit is made and notice thereof given. (C.C.P., s. 309; Code, s. 559; Rev., s. 603; C.S., s. 656.)


1-296. Judgment not vacated by stay.

The stay of proceedings provided for in this Article shall not be construed to vacate the judgment appealed from, but in all cases such judgment remains in full force and effect, and its lien remains unimpaired, notwithstanding the giving of the undertaking or making the deposit required in this Chapter, until such judgment is reversed or modified by the appellate division. (1887, c. 192; Rev., s. 604; C.S., s. 657; 1969, c. 44, s. 9.)


1-297. Judgment on appeal and on undertakings; restitution.

Upon an appeal from a judgment or order, the appellate court may reverse, affirm or modify the judgment or order appealed from, in the respect mentioned in the notice of appeal, and as to any or all of the parties, and may, if necessary or proper, order a new trial. When the judgment is reversed or modified, the appellate court may make complete restitution of all property and rights lost by the erroneous judgment. Undertakings for the prosecution of appeals and on writs of certiorari shall make a part of the record sent up to the appellate division on which judgment may be entered against the appellant or person prosecuting the writ of certiorari and his sureties, in all cases where judgment is rendered against the appellant or person prosecuting the writ. (1785, c. 233, s. 2, P.R.; 1810, c. 793, P.R.; 1831, c. 46, s. 2; R.C., c. 4, s. 10; C.C.P., s. 314; Code, s. 563; Rev., s. 605; C.S., s. 658; 1969, c. 44, s. 10.)


1-298. Procedure after determination of appeal.

In civil cases, at the first session of the superior or district court after a certificate of the determination of an appeal is received, if the judgment is affirmed the court below shall direct the execution thereof to proceed, and if the judgment is modified, shall direct its modification and performance. If a new trial is ordered the cause stands in its regular order on the docket for trial at such first session after the receipt of the certificate from the Appellate Division. (1887, c. 192, s. 2; Rev., s. 1526; C.S., s. 659; 1969, c. 44, s. 11; 1971, c. 268, s. 13.)


1-299 through 1-301: Repealed by Session Laws 1971, c. 268, s. 34.